Favorite News

Posted by : Majalah Siantar Senin, 16 Januari 2012



Majalah Siantar - Adverbs used in comparisons

a. The formation of comparative and superlative forms of adverbs
It should be noted that many adverbs, such as sometimes, never, here, there, now, then, first, again, yesterday and daily have no comparative or superlative forms.

i. Adverbs used with More and Most
Most adverbs used in comparisons, including those formed from corresponding adjectives by adding the ending ly, form the comparative with the word more, and the superlative with the word most. For example:
Positive Form    Comparative Form    Superlative Form
  carefully      more carefully      most carefully
  easily      more easily      most easily
  frequently      more frequently      most frequently
  slowly      more slowly      most slowly
  softly      more softly      most softly


ii. Adverbs used with the endings er and est
Adverbs which have the same positive forms as corresponding adjectives generally also have the same comparative and superlative forms as the corresponding adjectives. For example:
Positive Form    Comparative Form    Superlative Form
  early      earlier      earliest
  fast      faster      fastest
  hard      harder      hardest
  high      higher      highest
  late      later      latest
  long      longer      longest
  low      lower      lowest
  near      nearer      nearest
  straight      straighter      straightest

The adverb of time soon also uses the endings er and est:
Positive Form    Comparative Form    Superlative Form
  soon      sooner      soonest

It should be noted that adverbs formed by adding ly to one-syllable adjectives are sometimes used with the endings er and est.
e.g. We walked slower and slower.
      They sang the softest.

However, in modern English, it is generally considered to be more correct to write:
      We walked more and more slowly.
      They sang the most softly.

iii. Irregular adverbs
The irregular adverbs have the same comparative and superlative forms as the corresponding irregular adjectives:
Positive Form    Comparative Form    Superlative Form
  badly      worse      worst
  far      farther or further      farthest or furthest
  little      less      least
  much      more      most
  well      better      best


b. Positive forms of adverbs used in comparisons
The constructions employed when adverbs are used in comparisons are very similar to those employed when adjectives are used in comparisons.

i. The construction with As ... As
When used in making comparisons, the positive form of an adverb is usually preceded and followed by as. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.
        as   +      positive form   +      as     
              of adverb           
                         
        I can run      as      fast      as      you can.
        He moves      as      slowly      as      a snail.
        Her eyes shone      as      brightly      as      stars.

If desired, an adverb may be placed before the first occurrence of as:
        adverb   +      as   +      positive form   +      as     
                    of adverb           
                               
        I can run      twice      as      fast      as      you can.
        Her eyes shone      almost      as      brightly      as      stars.


ii. Ellipsis
Ellipsis is often employed in comparisons using adverbs. For instance, in the second half of such comparisons, instead of repeating the verb, the first auxiliary may be used, or the verb may be omitted entirely. In the following examples, the words which would usually be omitted are enclosed in square brackets.
e.g. I can run as fast as you can [run].
      He moves as slowly as a snail [moves].
      Her eyes shone as brightly as stars [shine].

c. Comparative forms of adverbs used in comparisons

i. The construction with Than
When used in making comparisons, the comparative form of an adverb is usually followed by than. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.
        comparative form   +      than     
        of adverb           
                   
        He can swim      farther      than      I can.
        She sings      more beautifully      than      her sister does.

As is the case with comparisons using adjectives, comparisons using adverbs can be combined with phrases or clauses.
e.g. She performs better in front of an audience than she does in rehearsal.
      They walked faster when they were on their way to school than they did
        when they were on their way home.

In the first example, the two situations being compared are distinguished by the phrases in front of an audience and in rehearsal. In the second example, the two situations being compared are distinguished by the clauses when they were on their way to school and when they were on their way home. The use of ellipsis should be noted. In the first example, the auxiliary does is used instead of repeating the verb performs. In the second example, the auxiliary did is used instead of repeating the verb walked.

See Exercise 6.

ii. Progressive comparisons
The comparative forms of adverbs can be used in progressive comparisons. For adverbs with the ending er, the following construction is used:
        comparative form   +      and   +      comparative form
        of adverb            of adverb
                   
e.g.   The plane flew      higher      and      higher.
        The team performed      better      and      better.

The meanings expressed in these examples can also be expressed as follows:
e.g. The plane flew increasingly high.
      The team performed increasingly well.

For adverbs which form the comparative with more, the following construction is used:
        more   +      and   +      more   +      positive form
                          of adverb
                         
        He solved the problems      more      and      more      easily.
        We visited them      more      and      more      frequently.

The meanings expressed in these examples can also be expressed as follows:
e.g. He solved the problems increasingly easily.
      We visited them increasingly frequently.

iii. The construction with Less and Less
A similar construction, employing the expression less and less, can also be used. The expressions less and less and more and more have opposite meanings.
        less   +      and   +      less   +      positive form
                          of adverb
                         
        He solved the problems      less      and      less      easily.
        We visited them      less      and      less      frequently.

The meanings expressed in these examples can also be expressed as follows:
e.g. He solved the problems decreasingly easily.
      We visited them decreasingly frequently.

See Exercise 7.

iv. The construction with The ..., the ...
Two clauses, each beginning with the, and each containing a comparative form of an adjective or adverb, can be used together in order to indicate a cause and effect relationship between two different things or events. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.
        comparative      1st part of            comparative      2nd part of
  The   +      form of adverb   +      comparison,   +      the   +      form of adverb   +      comparison
        or adjective                  or adjective     
                               
  The      more      they eat,      the      fatter      they get.
  The      faster      we skated,      the      warmer      we felt.

The following are further examples of the use of this type of construction. In these examples, the comparative forms are underlined.
e.g. The more cleverly we hid the Easter eggs, the more enthusiastically the children searched for them.
      The more I scold her, the worse she behaves.
As shown in the examples, in this type of construction the two clauses beginning with the must be separated by a comma.

d. Superlative forms of adverbs used in comparisons

i. The construction with The
When used in making comparisons, the superlative form of an adverb is usually preceded by the. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.
        the   +      superlative form     
              of adverb     
                   
        He jumped      the      highest      of all the boys in the class.
        Our team plays      the      best      of all the teams in the league.
        They sing      the      most sweetly      of all the choirs I have heard.

See Exercises 8 and 9.

In the case of adverbs which form the superlative with the ending est, the superlative is sometimes preceded by a possessive adjective, instead of by the definite article, the. In the following examples, the possessive adjectives are printed in bold type.
e.g. He ran his fastest.
      I did my best.

ii. The construction with The Least
Adverbs may also be preceded by the expression the least. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples. The words least and most have opposite meanings.
        the   +      least   +      positive form     
                    of adverb     
                         
        She speaks      the      least      loudly      of all the children.
        This bus runs      the      least      often.     

Sudahkah Anda membaca Informasi Terbaru dari Prediksi Bola Terkini ?


Leave a Reply

Berkomentarlah Yang Sopan Dan Jangan SPAM.
NOTE : Anda boleh mengcopy artikel dari Blog ini, tapi jangan lupa menyertakan sumbernya dari Majalah Siantar - Copyrights 2013. All Rights Reserved. Terimakasih telah berkunjung ...

Subscribe to Posts | Subscribe to Comments

- Copyright © Berita Terbaru. All Rights Reserved -